Between the time of Abraham and the Patriarchs to the the time of Moses and the Pharaoh the Israelites had become multitudinous and enslaved. Though they were slaves, they were many and strong. Their strength and numbers were the catalyst for pharaoh's condemnation of the newborn sons to the Hebrews. The fear fostered by this death sentence is what lead to Moses' being placed in a basket and eventual place at court. God had fulfilled his promise to Abraham of many descendents. Their numbers were enough to form a nation of their own. The only remaining promise required to satisfy the treaty was land. The Israelites still needed to be blessed with freedom, leadership, and deliverance to the Holy Land. Moses became instrumental in God's plan for the Israelite's pilgrimage to the Holy Land. During their time in the wilderness, en route to the Promised Land, God made another covenant with Abraham at Mount Sinai. God instructed Moses to have the Israelite's complete a series of tasks. Included in these tasks are the exact items to be sacrificed, how to present that sacrifice, the making of a tabernacle for Him to reside, the exact dimensions and furnishings of this dwelling, the designation, roles, and adornment of priests, creation of a census, the role of the Levites as caretakers of the tabernacle, the laws of Sabbath, and holiness. Among these laws is the “ten words” or “ten sayings” which have become known as the Ten Commandments. The Mosaic covenant has definite rules, regulations, stipulations, and commands. The Abrahamic covenant was more of a commitment to faith, holiness, and obedience. The covenant with Moses is essentially a verbal and written document detailing the holiness and faith that the Israelites had been expected to exhibit thus far anyway. The Most crucial and radical separation between the covenant of Abraham and the covenant of Moses is the inclusion of the word “if.”
Now therefore, if you will indeed obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my treasured possession among all peoples, for all the earth is mine; and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. These are the words that you shall speak to the people of Israel. (Exodus 19:5)God's covenant with Abraham was unconditional. God's covenant with Moses changed that.